2021年獲得圖書館OA補助文章之介紹 (服務辦法)
  • 1. Z-Complementary Code Sets With Flexible Lengths From Generalized Boolean Functions.

    Wu, S. W., Şahin, A., Huang, Z. M., & Chen, C. Y. (2021). IEEE Access, 9, 4642-4652. Cite this article

    In the literature, most Z-complementary code set (ZCCS) constructions based on generalized Boolean functions lead to sequences of power-of-two length. In this study, we show that our proposed direct constructions result in ZCCSs of both power-of-two length and non-power-of-two length. Since the monomials of degrees more than 2 are employed in the proposed constructions, more ZCCSs can be obtained. The constructed ZCCSs admit the theoretical upper bound on the size for a ZCCS when the sequence length is a power of two. Also, the corresponding peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) is theoretically upper-bounded when a sequence in the set is used in OFDM. The proposed constructions extend the applications of ZCCSs in practical communication systems, e.g., multicarrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) system, by offering flexible sequence lengths, various set sizes, and bounded PAPR.


  • 2. Anti-IL-20 Antibody Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Impaired Myocardial Function through Modulation of Oxidative Injuries, Inflammation and Cardiac Remodeling.

    Tsai, K.-L., Chou, W.-C., Cheng, H.-C., Huang, Y.-T., Chang, M.-S., & Chan, S.-H. (2021). Antioxidants, 10(2), 275. Cite this article

    We confirmed that IL-20 antibody injection at the moment of reperfusion reduces I/R-caused oxidative injuries, apoptosis, inflammation, as well as the elevation in markers of cardiac fibrosis and remodeling. We also proved that IL-20 antibody injection attenuates cardiac functional impairment, including the repressed EF and FS, the increased left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, and plasma markers of cardiac injury and heart failure. This study elucidates that IL-20 antibody might be favorable in lessening reperfusion injury in the treatment of AMI.


  • 3. The Spatial-Temporal Distribution of GOCI-Derived Suspended Sediment in Taiwan Coastal Water Induced by Typhoon Soudelor.

    Chau, P. M., Wang, C.-K., & Huang, A.-T. (2021). Remote Sensing, 13(2), 194. Cite this article

    We use high temporal resolution Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to monitor the spatial–temporal distribution of suspended sediment (SS) along the coastal waters of northern Taiwan which was affected by Typhoon Soudelor from 8 to 10 August 2015. The results show that SS concentration increased during 11–14 August and then decreased during 19–22 August. The mouths of the Dajia River and Tamsui River were hotspots of SS, ranging from 9 to 15 g/m3, during the two post-typhoon periods. It is also shown that maximum SS occurred in the west and east coastal water during 11–14 August and 19–22 August, respectively. Furthermore, an exponential decay model was used to compute the time when 90% of typhoon-induced SS was dissipated after Typhoon Soudelor. It was found that the mouths of the Tamsui River and Heping River had the longest time, with a range of 360–480 h.

    本文以高時間解析度GOCI衛星影像,觀測北台灣沿岸海水懸浮泥沙濃度(SS)受2015年8月蘇迪樂颱風影響之時空分佈。在颱風過後,SS分別於8月11–14日觀測期間上升,8月19–22日觀測期間下降,且大甲溪與淡水河之河口為高SS之熱區,達9–15 g/m3。以指數衰減模型計算減少90%颱風誘發的SS所需時間,發現淡水河與和平溪河口需要360–480小時。

  • 4. An aptamer interacting with heat shock protein 70 shows therapeutic effects and prognostic ability in serous ovarian cancer.

    Lin, C.-N., Tsai, Y.-C., Hsu, C.-C., Liang, Y.-L., Wu, Y.-Y., Kang, C.-Y., Lin, C.-H., Hsu, P.-H., Lee, G.-B., & Hsu, K.-F. (2021). Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 23, 757-768. Cite this article

    In this study, we aim to clarify the novel aptamer, Tx-01, clinical role and possible molecular mechanisms of Tx-01 in Ovarian cancer. Immunostaining and statistical analysis were performed to detect the interaction of Tx-01 and heat shock protein 70/Notch1 intracellular domain in OvCa. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential mechanisms of Tx-01. Tx-01 reduced serous OvCa OVCAR3 cell migration and invasion and inhibited HSP70 nuclear translocation by interrupting the intracellular HSP70/NICD interaction. Furthermore, Tx-01 suppressed serous-type OVCAR3 cell tumor growth in vivo. Tx-01 acts as a prognostic factor through its interaction with membrane-bound HSP70 on ascetic circulating tumor cells and is reported to be involved in natural killer (NK) cell recognition and activation. Our data demonstrated that Tx-01 interacted with HSP70 and showed therapeutic and prognostic effects in serous OvCa. Tx-01 might be a potential inhibitor for use in serous OvCa treatment.

    在這個研究中,我們發現新穎的適體TX-01跟HSP70在卵巢癌中有做結合。TX-01可以抑制卵巢癌OVCAR3細胞的移動及入侵, 同時抑制HSP70細胞核的移動 , 在小鼠上抑制OVCAR3的腫瘤生長。透過卵巢癌病人的腹水當中HSP70的結合, 可以作為治療預後的指標。因此我們認為TX-01的適體透過HSP70的結合可以在漿液性卵巢癌當中,具有作為治療以及預後預測的角色。

  • 5. Diversified Phenomena in Metal- and Transition-Metal-Adsorbed Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Lin, S.-Y., Tran, N. T. T., & Lin, M.-F. (2021). Nanomaterials, 11(3), 630. Cite this article

    In this study, the significant similarities and differences among Bi-/Al-/Ti-/Fe-/Co-/Ni-adsorbed graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are thoroughly investigated by using the first-principles calculations. The main characterizations include the adsorption sites, bond lengths, stability, band structures, charge densities, spin- and orbital-projected density of states, and magnetic configurations. Furthermore, there exists a transformation from finite gap semiconducting to metallic behaviors, accompanied by the nonmagnetism, antiferromagnetism, or ferromagnetism. The proposed theoretical framework could be generalized to explore other emergent 1D and 2D materials.

    使用第一原理計算,研究其Bi // Al- / Ti- / Fe- / Co- / Ni吸附的石墨烯奈米帶(GNR)之間的顯著差異。主要特徵為吸附位、鍵長、穩定性、能帶結構、電荷密度、自旋及軌道投影態密度與磁性構型。此外,伴隨著非磁性,反鐵磁性或鐵磁性,存在有限間隙半導體到金屬行為之轉變。此結果概括了理論性框架,及探索研究其它新興之1D與2D材料。

  • 6. Nanomedicine-Based Strategies Assisting Photodynamic Therapy for Hypoxic Tumors: State-of-the-Art Approaches and Emerging Trends.

    Shih, C.-Y., Wang, P.-T., Su, W.-C., Teng, H., & Huang, W.-L. (2021).Biomedicines, 9(2), 137. Cite this article

    Since the first clinical cancer treatment in 1978, photodynamic therapy (PDT) technologies have been largely improved and approved for clinical usage in various cancers. Due to the oxygen-dependent nature, the application of PDT is still limited by hypoxia in tumor tissues. Thus, the development of effective strategies for manipulating hypoxia and improving the effectiveness of PDT is one of the most important area in PDT field. Recently, emerging nanotechnology has benefitted progress in many areas, including PDT. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of nanomedicine-based approaches for assisting PDT for treating hypoxic tumors, mainly based on oxygen replenishing and oxygen dependency diminishing strategies. We will emphasize emerging trends about the use of nanoscale metal–organic framework materials and the combination of PDT with immunotherapy. We further discuss future perspectives and challenges associated with these trends in both the aspects of mechanism and clinical translation.


  • 7. Phage Digestion of a Bacterial Capsule Imparts Resistance to Two Antibiotic Agents.

    Luo, C.-H., Hsu, Y.-H., Wu, W.-J., Chang, K.-C., & Yeh, C.-S. (2021).Microorganisms, 9(4), 794. Cite this article

    Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect bacteria, which have developed extraordinary proteins for recognizing and degrading their host. Inspired by the remarkable development of viral proteins, phage-derived proteins have been used for clinical treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria infection. For example, the polysaccharide depolymerase or endolysins were used to attenuate bacterial cell walls or to destroy the bacterial membrane. More recent efforts have addressed bacterial selection to treat drug-stress or phage infection. We, then, propose a combination strategy of co-treating MDR Acinetobacter baumannii with phage endolysin derived peptide and polysaccharide depolymerase (the tail fiber molecules). In the study, we surprisingly observed a temporary increase in resistance to colistin, used as the last-resort antibiotic for MDR Gram negative bacterial infection. Evaluation of the phage attacking behavior suggests the temporary increased resistance may be associated with an increased risk of drug-resistance during phage-antibiotic synergy in clinical MDR A. baumannii treatment.


  • 8. Computer-Assisted System in Stress Radiography for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury with Correspondent Evaluation of Relevant Diagnostic Factors.

    Wang, C.-K., Lin, L.-C., Sun, Y.-N., Lai, C.-S., Chen, C.-H., & Kao, C.-Y. (2021).Diagnostics, 11(3), 419. Cite this article

    Retrospective research for 177 patients (129 with completely torn ACLs confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging) at our institution was performed. The anterior tibial translations with four different methods were measured by a computer-assisted system. Mean anterior tibial translations were significantly increased in the patients with a completely torn ACL, with diagnostic accuracies ranging from 66.7% to 75.1%. The diagnostic accuracy of method four was negatively associated with the time interval between stress radiography and MRI as well as force-joint distance on stress view, and not significantly associated with age, gender, flexion angle, intercondylar distance, and force-joint angle.


  • 9. Anti-Inflammatory Principles from the Needles of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata and In Silico Studies of Their Potential Anti-Aging Effects.

    Kuo, P.-C., Li, Y.-C., Kusuma, A. M., Tzen, J. T. C., Hwang, T.-L., Ye, G.-H., Yang, M.-L., & Wang, S.-Y. (2021).Antioxidants, 10(4), 598. Cite this article

    Pinus needle tea, which is very popular in Eastern countries, is claimed to have significant anti-aging effects. In this study, five undescribed compounds as well as seventy-two known compounds were characterized from the methanol extracts of P. taiwanensis needles. Most of the isolates were examined for their anti-inflammatory bioactivity, and six compounds exhibited significant inhibitions on superoxide anion generation and elastase release. These ingredients were subjected to docking computing to evaluate their binding affinity on the ghrelin receptor to explore the potentials of anti-aging effect. Three tested compounds formed a stable complex with the ghrelin receptor via hydrogen bonds and different types of interactions, and it suggested these flavonoids to be responsible for the potential anti-aging effects of pine needle tea.


  • 10. Electrosynthesized Ni-P nanospheres with high activity and selectivity towards photoelectrochemical plastics reforming.

    Lin, C.-Y., Huang, S.-C., Lin, Y.-G., Hsu, L.-C., & Yi, C.-T. (2021). Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 296, 120351. Cite this article

    Photoelectrochemical reforming of plastic waste offers an environmentally-benign and sustainable route for hydrogen generation. Nonetheless, little attention was paid to develop electrocatalysts that can efficiently and selectively catalyze oxidative transformation of valueless plastic wastes into valued chemicals. Herein, we report on facile electrosynthesis of nickel-phosphorus nanospheres (nanoNi-P), and their versatility in catalyzing hydrogen generation, water oxidation, and reforming of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Notably, composite of nanoNi-P with carbon nanotubes (CNT/nanoNi-P) requires −180 mV overpotential to drive hydrogen generation at -100 mA cm−2. Besides, CV-activated nanoNi-P (nanoNi-P(CV)) was shown to be capable of reforming PET into formate with high selectivity (Faradic efficiency= ∼100 %). Efficient and selective generation of hydrogen and formate from PET reforming is realized utilizing an Earth-abundant photoelectrochemical platform based on nanoNi-P(CV)-modified TiO2 nanorods photoanode and CNT/nanoNi-P cathode. This work paves a path for developing artificial leaf for simultaneous environmental mitigation and photosynthesis of renewable fuels and valued chemicals.


  • 11. Association of Primary Treatment Modality for Advanced-Stage Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Survival Outcomes.

    Tsai, M.-H., Cheng, Y.-J., Pao, T.-H., Hsueh, W.-T., Chen, H. H. W., & Wu, Y.-H. (2021). JAMA Network Open, 4(6), e2112067-e2112067. Cite this article

    This retrospective comparative effectiveness analysis used data from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Included patients were diagnosed with clinical stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma from 2007 to 2015 and were identified from the registry. Among 1180 patients, 694 patients (58.8%) were in the definitive chemoradiotherapy group and 486 patients (41.2%) were in the upfront surgical treatment group. The mean age was 54.59 years. Primary treatment with an upfront surgical procedure was associated with a decreased risk of death during the study period (HR: 0.81; P = .02). However, when adjusted for age, subsite, histological grade, and T and N classification, upfront surgical treatment was no longer associated with an increased risk of death during the study period (HR: 0.96; P = .70). Progressionfree survival was worse in the group receiving upfront surgical treatment than in the group receiving chemoradiotherapy (HR, 1.64; P = .02), and this difference persisted after adjusting for other factors associated with prognosis(HR, 1.72; p = .01). This study found that definitive chemoradiotherapy was associated with effectiveness that was comparable with that of upfront surgical treatment when adjusted for baseline factors associated with prognosis. These findings suggest that definitive chemoradiotherapy should be considered to avoid accumulating toxic effects associated with surgical treatment and chemoradiotherapy.

    本研究為回溯性之比較效益研究。我們採用台灣癌症登記資料庫的數據, 2007年至2015年第III或IV期口咽鱗狀細胞癌, 1180例患者中,有694例(58.8%)接受了根治性放射治療併化學治療,486例(41.2%)接受手術治療。中位(四分間距)追蹤時間為3.62(1.63-5.47)年,大多數患者為男性(1052 [89.1%])、原發於扁桃線(712例[60.3%]),組織呈中度分化(604例[51.2%]),臨床期別為N2(858例[72.7%])與IVA疾病(938患者[79.5%])。於研究期間中,接受手術治療與較低死亡風險相關(HR 0.81;p = .02)。但經年齡、原發部位、分化程度、及T和N分期調整後,則不再與死亡風險相關(HR,0.96;P = .70)。接受手術治療的無進展生存期較差(HR,1.64;P = .02),且調整了與已知預後因子(即年齡、原發部位、分化程度、及T和N分期)後,仍有顯著差異(HR,1.72;P = 0.01)。結論與相關性:我們的分析顯示,在校正已知預後因子後,根治性放射治療併化學治療與手術治療在局部晚期口咽癌的效果相當。我們認為應優先考慮根治性放射治療併化學治療,以避免手術與根治性放射治療併化學治療的三重毒性。

  • 12. Development of spatially varying groundwater-drawdown functions for land subsidence estimation.

    Chu, H.-J., Ali, M. Z., Tatas, & Burbey, T. J. (2021). Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 35, 100808. Cite this article

    Land subsidence caused by groundwater overexploitation is a critical global problem. The spatial distribution of land subsidence is crucial for effective environmental management and land planning in subsidence prone areas. Because of the nonlinear relationship between subsidence and drawdown due to groundwater exploitation in heterogeneous aquifers, a spatial regression (SR) model is developed to effectively estimate nonlinear and spatially varying land subsidence. Considering various data inputs in the Choshui River alluvial fan, the SR model offers a robust method for accurately estimating the spatial patterns of subsidence using only drawdown as input data.


  • 13. Neurodevelopment regulators miR-137 and miR-34 family as biomarkers for early and adult onset schizophrenia.

    Chen, B.-Y., Lin, J.-J., Lu, M.-K., Tan, H.-P., Jang, F.-L., & Lin, S.-H. (2021). npj Schizophrenia, 7(1), 35. Cite this article

    Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) may have stronger familial aggregation and a more severe outcome than adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS). MicroRNA (miRNA) takes on dual roles as a genetic and epigenetic modulator, which mediate the influence of genetic risk. Neurological soft signs (NSS) are neurological abnormalities that may be intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We aimed to identify a set of aberrant neurodevelopmental-related miRNAs that could serve as potential biomarkers for EOS or schizophrenia with NSS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed miR-137 dysregulation was correlated with almost all NSS subscales and, when EOS patients with NSS, miR-137 expression discriminated these patients from healthy controls to a greater extent (AUC = 0.957). MiR-34b had the highest ability to discriminate between EOS and AOS (AUC = 0.810), which may indicate different etiological pathways to disease onset. These findings support the potential for neurodevelopmental-related miRNAs to be used as indicators of vulnerability to EOS.
    Keywords: schizophrenia, epigenetic, microRNA, neurological soft signs, endophenotype, neurodevelopment.

    早發性思覺失調症患者相較於成人才發病的患者可能有較高的家族聚集性與較嚴重的症狀。而微型核醣核酸具備遺傳與表觀遺傳的雙重角色,軟性神經學症狀可能為思覺失調症的內在表現型。microRNA-137可鑑別早發性思覺失調症伴隨軟性神經學症狀患者與健康者(AUC = 0.957)。而microRNA-34b則能於早發性與成人型思覺失調症患者之間有良好的鑑別能力(AUC = 0.810)。本研究成功利用一組與神經發展相關的微型核糖核酸(microRNA-137與microRNA-34家族)作為鑑別早發型思覺失調症患者的潛在生物標記。

  • 14. Etoposide Triggers Cellular Senescence by Inducing Multiple Centrosomes and Primary Cilia in Adrenocortical Tumor Cells.

    Teng, Y.-N., Chang, H.-C., Chao, Y.-Y., Cheng, H.-L., Lien, W.-C., & Wang, C.-Y. (2021). Cells, 10(6), 1466. Cite this article

    Etoposide (ETO) has been used in treating adrenocortical tumor (ACT) cells. In this study, we showed that ETO treatment at 10 μM inhibited ACT cell growth by inducing cellular senescence rather than apoptosis. Several markers of cellular senescence, including activated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, elevated levels of p53, and down-regulation of lamin B1, were observed. We further found that ETO induced multiple centrosomes. The inhibition of multiple centrosomes accomplished by treating cells with either roscovitine or centrinone. DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling was activated by ETO treatment; inhibition of this signaling cascade alleviated multiple ETO-induced centrosomes and primary cilia followed by reducing cellular senescence. Autophagy was also triggered by ETO treatment. The inactivation of DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling reduced ETO-triggered autophagy; however, the inhibition of autophagy did not affect DNA-PK-Chk2 activation. Thus, ETO activated the DNA-PK-Chk2 cascade to facilitate autophagy. The activated autophagy further induced multiple centrosomes and primary cilia followed by triggering senescence.

    本研究發現當以濃度10 µM的etoposide (ETO)處理細胞時,會誘發cellular senescence,伴隨SA-β-GAL酵素活性會增加、p53上升和lamin B1下降。ETO會導致multiple centrosomes。ETO也會活化DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling,抑制此signaling會減少multiple centrosomes及primary cilia進而減少senescence,autophagy也受到相同的訊息路徑的調控,當抑制DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling會減少ETO所誘發的autophagy,而當抑制autophagy不會影響DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling的活化。因此ETO活化DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling以促進autophagy,進而誘導multiple centrosomes及primary cilia觸發senescence。

  • 15. Trajectory of Food Insecurity and Its Association with Longitudinal Mental Health and Sleep Outcomes in Adolescents from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    Lee, T.-H., Kuo, J.-H., Liu, C.-Y., Yu, Y.-F., Strong, C., Lin, C.-Y., Lee, C.-T., & Tsai, M.-C. (2021). Nutrients, 13(5), 1696. Cite this article

    There is a paucity of research examining how the change of food insecurity (FI) over time is related to mental health and sleep outcomes in Taiwanese adolescents. The data come from the Taiwan Database of Children and Youth in Poverty, which is a national longitudinal project measuring FI in five survey waves (2009-2017). We employed group-based trajectory modeling to classify 1921 participants aged 12-18 years into four FI trajectory groups: persistently low FI (24.8%), persistently moderate FI (64.7%), declining from high to low FI (4.1%), and food-secure groups (6.4%). Furthermore, a generalized estimating equation analysis was conducted the persistently moderate FI group was more likely to have mental (β = 0.30, [95% confidence interval 0.21-0.38]) and sleep problems (β = 0.39, [0.29-0.48]), as compared to food-secure adolescents. Our study describes the FI profile of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families. Healthcare providers can aid adolescents and provide guidance when appropriate.


    很少有研究調查糧食匱虞(FI)隨時間的變化如何與台灣青少年的心理健康和睡眠結果相關。數據來自台灣貧窮兒童與青少年數據庫,這是一個全國性縱貫計畫,在五個調查波(2009-2017)中測量FI。我們採用群組化軌跡模型將 1921名 12至18 歲的參與者分為四個 FI 軌跡組別,分別是持續低度FI (24.8%)、持續中度FI (64.7%)、從高到低FI (4.1%) 和糧食安全組(6.4%)。接續進行廣義估計方程分析,發現對比糧食安全的青少年,持續中等 FI 組更可能有心理(β = 0.30,[95% 信賴區間 0.21-0.38])和睡眠問題(β = 0.39,[0.29-0.48])。我們的研究描述了來自經濟弱勢家庭的青少年的 FI 概況。醫療照顧提供者可以幫助青少年並在適當時提供指導。

  • 16. Sitting Posture during Prolonged Computer Typing with and without a Wearable Biofeedback Sensor.

    Kuo, Y.-L., Huang, K.-Y., Kao, C.-Y., & Tsai, Y.-J. (2021). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10), 5430. Cite this article

    Prolonged sitting combined with an awkward posture might contribute to the increased risks of developing spinal pain. Maintaining an upright sitting posture is thus often suggested. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a wearable biofeedback sensor on maintaining an upright sitting posture. Twenty-one healthy young adults were recruited and performed a 1-h computer typing task twice, with and without using the active biofeedback device. The sagittal spinal posture during computer typing was measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Using the wearable bio-feedback sensor significantly decreased the neck flexion, thoracic kyphotic, and pelvic plane angles compared with not using the sensor. Computer users and sedentary workers may benefit from using wearable biofeedback sensors to actively maintain an upright sitting posture during prolonged deskwork.


  • 17. Applying an Adaptive Signal Identification Method to Improve Vessel Echo Detection and Tracking for SeaSonde HF Radar.

    Chuang, L. Z.-H., Chen, Y.-R., & Chung, Y.-J. (2021). Remote Sensing, 13(13), 2453. Cite this article

    To enhance remote sensing for maritime safety and security. High-frequency (HF) radar systems are a type of mainstream technology widely used in international marine remote sensing. However, effectively recognizing targets in spectra with intrinsic strong disturbance echoes and random environmental noise is still challenging. To avoid the above problem, this paper proposes an adaptive signal identification method to detect target signals based on a rapid and flexible threshold. By integrating a watershed segmentation algorithm, the subsequent direction result can be used to automatically compute the direction of arrival of the targets. To assist in the orientation of the object, forward intersections are integrated with the technique. Hence, the proposed technique can effectively recognize vessel echoes with automatic identification system (AIS) verification. Experiments have demonstrated the promising feasibility of the proposed method’s performance.
    Keywords: high-frequency (HF) radar; adaptive signal identification (ASI); vessel detection; direction finding; automatic identification system (AIS)

    關鍵字:高頻雷達; 調適性偵測技術; 船舶偵測; 方位辨識; 自動辨識系統

  • 18. Sex differences in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and effects of comorbid mental retardation and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Tang, C. H., Chi, M. H., Hsieh, Y. T., Lee, T. I., Tai, Y. C., Lien, Y.-J., Yang, Y. K., & Chen, P. S. (2021). Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. Cite this article

    The association between sex and diagnostic behavior of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the effects of comorbid mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), were explored. The incidence was higher in males than in females across ages. Comorbid MR or ADHD increased the incidence of ASD in both sexes; comorbid MR or ADHD also decreased the male to female hazard ratio of ASD, with no significant differences in the incidence density of ASD between sexes. ADHD delayed diagnosis in both sexes. The results indicating unique vulnerabilities to MR/ADHD or under-identification of high-functioning females with ASD subjects. Increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of ASD in those with comorbid ADHD is important due to a delayed diagnostic age in this group.


  • 19. Taxonomic and Functional Dysregulation in Salivary Microbiomes During Oral Carcinogenesis.

    Chen, J.-W., Wu, J.-H., Chiang, W.-F., Chen, Y.-L., Wu, W.-S., & Wu, L.-W. (2021). Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11(861). Cited this article

    In this report, we systematically characterized the compositions and ecological drivers of salivary microbiome in the cohorts of orally healthy, non-recurrent oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH), and OVH–associated oral cancer at taxonomic and function levels, and compared them with the re-analysis of publicly available datasets through using bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and in silico function analysis by PICRUSt2 (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States 2). Diversity analyses showed the decline of core species numbers and the deregulation of metabolic pathways as host oral health deteriorated. Partitioned beta-diversity revealed an extremely high species turnover but low function turnover. Functional beta-diversity in saliva microbiome shifted from turnover to nestedness during oral carcinogenesis, which was not observed at taxonomic levels. Moreover, metabolic pathways of nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids, and cell structure are strongly related with the disease progression. Using predicted functional profiles to elucidate the correlations to the oral health status thus shows superior performance than those using taxonomic data. Together, this study not only advances our understanding of the oral ecosystem in relation to oral carcinogenesis but also provide a new direction for using microbiome-based tools to study the interplay of the oral microbiome, metabolites, and host health.


  • 20. New Structural and Single Nucleotide Mutations in Type I and Type II Collagens in Taiwanese Children With Type I and Type II Collagenopathies.

    Tsai, M.-C., Chou, Y.-Y., Li, C.-Y., Wang, Y.-C., Yu, H.-W., Chen, C.-H., & Chen, P.-C. (2021). Frontiers in Genetics, 12(1268) Cited this article

    Collagenopathy is a rare genetic condition characterized by abnormality in either collagen structure or metabolism. Through whole exome sequencing (WES) complemented with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified the genetic etiologies for six cases with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in COL1A1 (p.T1298N, p.Q1280Pfs∗51, and p.G557Vfs∗23) and COL1A2 (c.1-1677_133-441del) as well as three cases with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita in COL2A1 (p.G1041S, p.G654S, and p.G441A). Co-occurrence of COL1A1 and WNT1 mutations was found in a patient with a mild OI phenotype but severe osteoporosis. These findings extended the pathogenic variant spectrum of COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL2A1 for type I and type II collagenopathies. Although WES provides a fast and accurate method to identify the genetic causes, its limitation of detecting CNVs because of variable capturing uniformity should be kept in mind when interpreting the results. We demonstrate that multiple genetic characterizing technologies can provide an accurate and efficient molecular diagnosis.

    膠原病變是一種罕見的遺傳病,其特徵是膠原結構或代謝異常。通過全外顯子定序 (WES) 並輔以多重連接探針擴增技術(MLPA),我們確認6 例成骨不全 (OI) 的遺傳病因是為COL1A1的突變(p.T1298N、p.Q1280Pfs*51、 p.G557Vfs*23)和COL1A2的突變(c.1-1677_133-441del) 以及另外三例先天性脊椎骨骺發育不良有COL2A1的突變(p.G1041S、p.G654S、p.G441A)。在具有輕度 OI 表型但嚴重骨質疏鬆症的患者則發現同時存在COL1A1和WNT1突變。這些發現擴展了 I 型和 II 型膠原病變關於COL1A1、COL1A2、COL2A1的致病突變的光譜。儘管 WES 提供了一種快速準確的方法來識別遺傳原因,但在解釋結果時應牢記由於可變捕獲均勻性而導致檢測拷貝數多型性(CNV)的局限。我們證明了多種基因表徵技術可以提供準確有效的分子診斷。

  • 21. Enhanced output performance of ZnO thin film triboelectric nanogenerators by leveraging surface limited ga doping and insulting bulk.

    Lee, P.-C., Ou, Y.-C., Wang, R.-C., & Liu, C.-P. (2021). Nano Energy, 89, 106394. Cited this article

    Doping in semiconductors renders one serious drawback in triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as tribo-charges tend to leak for energy output. Therefore, a two-layer structure of Ga-doped ZnO/undoped-ZnO is proposed, where a ZnO thin film was first grown by sputter followed by Ga doping restricted to a shallow surface region by thermal diffusion. The results support that surface work function difference between two tribo-materials under the well preservation of trio-charges retention governs the charge transfer capability, where the output voltage and current of the ZnO film doped with 0.93 at% Ga can be enhanced by 16 and 13 times, respectively. Nevertheless, the larger work function of β-Ga2O3 than Ga-doped ZnO does not lead to larger output performance, implying the importance of carrier concentration in the performance of TENGs. We demonstrated a viable method to modify the work function of ZnO only confined to the surface through doping without disturbing the bulk, optimizing semiconductors for TENGs.


  • 22. Investigation of water bonding status of normal and psoriatic skin in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Yang, C.-C., Yen, Y.-Y., Hsu, C.-K., Cheng, N.-Y., Tzeng, S.-Y., Chou, S.-J., Chang, J.-M., & Tseng, S.-H. (2021). Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8901. Cited this article

    Psoriasis affects more than 125 million people worldwide, and the diagnosis and treatment efficacy evaluation of the disease mainly rely on clinical assessments that could be subjective. While the compromised epidermal barrier function has been taken as the major cause of clinical manifestation of skin inflammation of psoriasis, very few methods can be used to effectively evaluate this function. In this study, we investigate the near infrared spectroscopic features of psoriatic (n = 21) and normal (n = 21) skin that could link to the epidermal barrier function. From the DRS measurements, it was found that the water bonding status and light scattering properties of psoriasis are significantly different from those of uninvolved or normal skin. The connection between these parameters to the epidermal barrier function and morphology is discussed. Our results suggest that objective evaluation of epidermal barrier function of psoriasis could be achieved using a simple DRS system.


  • 23. Psychometric Evaluation of the Nurses Professional Values Scale-3: Indonesian Version.

    Asiandi, A., Erlina, M., Lin, Y.-H., & Huang, M.-C. (2021). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(16), 8810. Cited this article

    The Nurses Professional Values Scale-3 (NPVS-3) is an important instrument for measuring development and sustainability of professional values in nurses and nursing students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of NPVS-3, Indonesian version. The forward and backward translation was conducted to develop the NPVS3-I. Six hundred nurse participants filled this questionnaire. The 28-item scale of NPVS3-I was tested using EFA and CFA, applying the principal axis factoring extraction method and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation method. Findings suggested sufficient content validity, construct validity, and reliability of the NPVS3-I. The I-CVI values ranged between 0.80 to 1.00 and the S-CVI was 0.99. Construct validity was supported with loading factors ranging from 0.49 to 0.84 for three factors (Caring, Activism, and Professionalism) and explain 65.40% variance. The NPVS3-I showed good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha= 0.97, and 0.94, 0.95, and 0.89 for Caring, Activism, and Professionalism, respectively.

    本研究旨在對轉譯之印尼版護理專業價值量表(NPVS3-I)進行信、效度檢測。問卷共28題,以分層隨機抽樣方式對3家醫院之600位護理師進行問卷調查。以探索性因素分析方式進行分析,結果顯示此問卷有良好的信效度,其中內容效度為0.8~1.0,建構效度確認3個因素(關懷、行動與專業)之負荷量為0.49~0.84,可解釋65.40%之變異量。問卷內在一致性Cronbach's α為0.97。

  • 24. Efficient DNA-Driven Nanocavities for Approaching Quasi-Deterministic Strong Coupling to a Few Fluorophores.

    Chan, W.-P., Chen, J.-H., Chou, W.-L., Chen, W.-Y., Liu, H.-Y., Hu, H.-C., Jeng, C.-C., Li, J.-R., Chen, C., & Chen, S.-Y. (2021). ACS Nano. Cited this article

    Strong coupling between an atom and a cavity has been utilized for quantum photonic devices such as deterministic single photon sources and quantum gates. The alignment between an atom and a cavity needs atom trapping and high vacuum equipment, which are hardly to be integrated into a microchip. Here, DNA strands connect a gold nanoparticle and a gold film to construct a nanocavity and simultaneously integrate a few fluorophores into the cavity to form a strong coupling unit. High cavity yield and strong coupling yield are achieved by this method. Combination of this method with e-beam lithography can further position strong coupling units on a specific location of a microchip. Furthermore, when we detune fluorophores embedded nanocavities, the polariton energy can fit into the curves derived from three sets of two-level systems, which indicates vibronic modes may be involved in the strong coupling systems.


  • 25. Systematic Identification of Protein Targets of Sub5 Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteome Microarrays.

    Shah, P., & Chen, C.-S. (2021). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(2), 760. Cited this article

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are intensively studied in terms of alternative drugs. Sub5 is a synthetic 12-mer AMP with substitutions of five amino acids of bactenecin 2A (Bac2A), a linear-ized bactenecin variant of bovine. Sub5 is highly effective against fungi with an ability to trans-locate cell membrane, but its targets are unknown. Systematic analysis of Sub5 targets will facilitate our understanding on its mechanism of action. In this study, we used high-throughput Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome microarrays to explore the potential protein targets of Sub5. The screening results showed 128 potential protein targets of Sub5. Bioinformatics analysis of protein targets of Sub5 revealed significant gene ontology (GO) enrichment in actin related pro-cess of "actin filament-based process", "actin filament organization", "actin cortical patch or-ganization", regulation of "actin filament bundle assembly". Moreover, the other enriched cat-egories in GO enrichment mostly contained actin associate proteins. In total, 11 actin-associated proteins were identified in the protein targets of Sub5. Protein family (PFAM) enrichment anal-ysis shows protein domain enriched in actin binding, i.e., "Cytoskeletal-regulatory complex EF hand (helix E-loop-helix F motif)". Being consistent with GO analysis, Search Tool for the Re-trieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analysis of the protein targets of Sub5 showed ac-tin network with involvement of 15 protein targets. Along with actin-network, STRING analysis showed protein-protein interaction network in ribonucleoprotein, transcription and translation, chromosome, histone, and ubiquitin related, DNA repair, and chaperone. Multiple Expression motifs for Motif Elicitation (MEME) suite provided a consensus binding motif of [ED][ED]EEE[ED][ED][ED][ED][ED], in total of 75 protein targets of Sub5. This motif was present in 9 out of 15 actin-related proteins identified among protein targets of Sub5.

    抗菌肽已有許多研究。Sub5 是合成的抗菌肽,與Bac2A 差異五個胺基酸,有強效的抗黴能力,但其攻擊目標未知。系統性分析其攻擊目標將能增進我們對Sub5 作用機制的了解。在此,我們用酵母菌蛋白體微陣列晶片來分析其攻擊目標蛋白。結果顯示有128個目標蛋白。生物資訊分析發現這些蛋白顯著巨集在actin 相關的功能作用,功能區塊分析也與actin 結合功能有關。蛋白相互作用網路分析也有15個蛋白質和actin有關,其他也發現和轉譯、轉錄、染色體、DNA 等相關。序列分析也發現了在128個目標蛋白中有75個蛋白質有共同的胺基酸序列[ED][ED]EEE[ED][ED][ED][ED][ED], 此序列也存在於15個和actin 相關的目標蛋白質中的九個蛋白。

  • 26. Advanced High Entropy Perovskite Oxide Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Nguyen, T. X., Liao, Y.-C., Lin, C.-C., Su, Y.-H., & Ting, J.-M. (2021). Advanced Functional Materials, 31(27), 2101632. Cited this article

    A new type of lanthanum-based high entropy perovskite oxide (HEPO) electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction is reported. The B-site lattices in the HEPO consist of five consecutive first-row transition metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. Equimolar and five non-equimolar HEPO electrocatalysts are studied for their OER electrocatalytic performance. In the five non-equimolar HEPOs, the concentration of one of the five transition metals is doubled in individual samples. The performances of all the HEPOs outperform the single perovskite oxides. The optimized La(CrMnFeCo2Ni)O3 HEPO exhibits an outstanding OER overpotential of 325 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm−2 and excellent electrochemical stability after 50 h of testing.

    本文報導了一種用於析氧反應的新型鑭基高熵鈣鈦礦氧化物之電催化劑,鈣鈦礦氧化物之 B 位晶格由Cr、Mn、Fe、Co 和 Ni組成。 所有高熵鈣鈦礦氧化物,包括一種等摩爾比和五種非等摩爾比者,之催化性能均優於單一金屬鈣鈦礦氧化物。而優化後的 La(CrMnFeCo2Ni)O3 在 10 mA cm-2 的電流密度下表現出 325 mV出色的過電位和50 小時測試之優異電化學穩定性。

  • 27. Decrease of Pneumococcal Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization and Associated Complications in Children after the Implementation of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) in Taiwan.

    Shen, C.-F., Chen, J.-L., Su, C.-C., Lin, W.-L., Hsieh, M.-L., Liu, C.-C., & Cheng, C.-L. (2021). Vaccines, 9(9), 1043. Cited this article

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on overall community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and disease severity. The interrupted timeseries analysis was performed to compare the incidence trend before and after the implementation of PCV13. After implementation, the significant decreasing trend of pneumococcal CAP (P-CAP) hospitalization corresponds to a 59% reduction in children < 1 year, 47% in children aged 2–5 years, 39% in adult aged 19–65 years, and 41% in elderly aged 66 years or older. The intensive care rate (6.8% to 3.9%), severe pneumonia cases (21.7 to 14.5 episodes per 100,000 children–years), and the need for invasive procedures (4.3% to 2.0%) decreased in children aged 2–5 years with P-CAP. This PCV13 implementation program in Taiwan not only reduced the incidence of P-CAP, but also attenuated disease severity, especially in children aged 2–5 years.


  • 28. NOX2-Deficient Neutrophils Facilitate Joint Inflammation Through Higher Pro-Inflammatory and Weakened Immune Checkpoint Activities

    Liao, Y.-C., Wu, S.-Y., Huang, Y.-F., Lo, P.-C., Chan, T.-Y., Chen, C.-A., Wu, C.-H., Hsu, C.-C., Yen, C.-L., Chen, P.-C., & Shieh, C.-C. (2021). Frontiers in Immunology, 12(3665). Cited this article

    Immune-mediated arthritis is an important chronic inflammatory disease of joints. The cellular and molecular factors contributing to the joint inflammation in different redox conditions have not been clearly elucidated. Previous research showed that phagocyte-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an anti-inflammatory role in K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis and NOX2-deficient mice tend to have more severe arthritis. Although many leukocytes play critical roles in the development of immune-mediated arthritis, the role of neutrophils, which are the main producers of ROS in inflammation, is still controversial. We hence assessed the immunomodulatory function of neutrophils from arthritic joints of NOX2-deficient and wild type mice in this study. We found more neutrophils accumulation in NOX2-deficient inflamed joints. RNA-sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed significantly increased expression of acute inflammation genes including IL1b, Cxcl2, Cxcl3, Cxcl10 and Mmp3 in activated neutrophils from the inflamed joints of NOX2-deficient mice. Moreover, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed enriched gene signatures in type I and II IFN responses, IL-6-JAK-STAT3 signalling pathway and TNF-a signalling pathway via NF-kB in NOX2-deficient neutrophils. In addition, we found that NOX2-deficient neutrophils expressed lower levels of PD-L1 and were less suppressive than WT neutrophils. Moreover, treatment of PD-L1-Fc decreased cytokine expression and ameliorated the severity of inflammatory arthritis. Our results suggest that NOX2-derived ROS is critical for regulating the function and gene expression in arthritic neutrophils. Both the strong pro-inflammatory and weakened anti-inflammatory functions of neutrophils due to abnormal redox regulation may be targets of treatment for immune-mediated arthritis.

    免疫引起之關節炎是一種慢性發炎性關節疾病,在不同的氧化還原狀態下的細胞與分子如何造成免疫性關節炎這部分還尚未研究清楚。先前的研究指出菸醯胺腺嘌呤二磷酸氧化酶 (NOX2)所產生的活性氧分子(ROS)在K/BxN血清引起的關節炎中具有抗發炎的功能,並且NOX2缺陷的小鼠會產生更加嚴重的免疫性關節炎。雖然很多種白血球在免疫性關節炎的發展中都扮演了角色,但是主要表現NOX2的嗜中性球的角色還尚未釐清。所以,我們想要研究NOX2缺陷的嗜中性球以及正常的嗜中性球在免疫性關節炎中的免疫調節功能。初步的研究結果發現在NOX2缺陷的小鼠關節中有比較多的嗜中性球浸潤和累積。接著,在使用RNA定序技術分析抗體活化之NOX2缺陷嗜中性球的基因表現之後,我們發現急性發炎性基因包括: IL1b、Cxcl2、Cxcl3、Cxcl10和Mmp3 等等的基因表現都上升。再進一步地使用gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) 分析RNA定序的結果後發現,第一和第二型干擾素反應基因群、介白素6-JAK-STAT3訊息傳遞路徑基因群以及腫瘤壞死因子a經由NF-kB的訊息傳遞路徑基因群的表現量都在NOX2缺陷的嗜中性球中提高了。同時,我們發現NOX2缺陷嗜中性球抑制正常T細胞增生的功能較弱,其免疫檢查點的表現量也較少。在加強了免疫檢查點在NOX2缺陷的小鼠表現量之後,細胞激素的表現以及關節炎的嚴重性都降低了。總而言之,活性氧分子,特別是由NOX 2所產生的,在免疫引起的關節炎中具有極為重要的免疫調節功能,所以調節氧化還原狀態是具有潛力的目標可用於治療免疫引起的關節炎。

  • 29. Chemoreversal Agents from Taiwanofungus Genus and Their More Potent Methyl Derivatives Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation.

    Yu, K.-H., Hung, C.-C., Wu, T.-S., Chen, C.-F., Wu, I.-T., Kuo, P.-C., Lam, S.-H., & Hung, H.-Y. (2021). Pharmaceuticals, 14(9), 916. Cited this article

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles to cancer treatment and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were found to be one of the important MDR mechanism pathways recently. In our previous research, MDR inhibitory activity of zhankuic acid methyl ester was found to be better than that of its acid. Therefore, we executed a systematic examination of the structure–activity relationship of zhankuic acid methyl ester derivatives to collateral sensitivity in MDR cancer cells. The results showed that compound 12 is the best with reversal fold of 692 in MDR KBvin cells. In addition, compounds 8, 12, and 26 were shown to influence the activation of STAT3 in KBvin cells, accounting for part of their chemoreversal effects. Our results may provide a new combined therapy with paclitaxel to treat MDR cancers and provide a new therapy option for patients.

    多重抗藥性為治療癌症主要的困難。近年,信號轉導及轉錄激活蛋白3被發現為多重抗藥性的重要機轉之一。根據之前的研究,樟芝酸甲基酯類表現出比酸類更強的活性。因此,我們進行系統檢視樟芝酸甲基酯對多重抗藥性細胞的附屬敏感性的構效關係。結果12對於反轉化療抗藥性活性最好,可反轉692倍。此外,化合物8, 12, 26發現會影響STAT3在KBvin細胞中的活化,貢獻部分的反轉抗藥性的效果。此結果對於多重抗藥性的癌症提供了一個新的紫杉醇混合式治療並對病人提供一個新的治療選擇。

  • 30. Memantine Protects against Paclitaxel-Induced Cognitive Impairment through Modulation of Neurogenesis and Inflammation in Mice.

    Sung, P.-S., Chen, P.-W., Yen, C.-J., Shen, M.-R., Chen, C.-H., Tsai, K.-J., & Lin, C.-C. K. (2021). Cancers, 13(16), 4177. Cited this article

    Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is an increasing awareness due to prolonged survival following cancer chemotherapy in cancer patients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for CICI induced by various chemotherapeutic agents; however, hippocampal damage and impaired neurogenesis may be one of the mechanisms. The aim of our study was to investigate the interplay between impaired neurogenesis, inflammation, and the symptoms of CICI, including spatial memory dysfunction and mood alteration, in a paclitaxel-treated mice model. In addition, we demonstrated that memantine may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for paclitaxel- induced CICI by modulating neurogenesis and inflammation. However, the treatment regimen may lead to variations in the treatment efficacy, especially in terms of mood dysfunction. Further translational studies may be developed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of memantine in human CICI studies.


  • 31. Implementation of a Deep Learning Algorithm Based on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Time–Frequency Features for the Detection and Severity Classification of Parkinson’s Disease.

    Setiawan, F., & Lin, C.-W. (2021). Sensors, 21(15), 5207. Cited this article

    A novel detection and severity classification algorithm using deep learning approaches was developed in this research to classify PD severity levels based on vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) signals. Different variations in force patterns generated by the irregularity in vGRF signals due to the gait abnormalities of PD patients can indicate their severity. The detection algorithm comprises preprocessing, feature transformation, and classification processes. In preprocessing, the vGRF signal is divided into 10, 15, and 30-s successive time windows. In the feature transformation process, the preprocessed time-domain vGRF signal is modified into a time-frequency spectrogram using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Then, principal component analysis (PCA) is used for feature enhancement. Finally, different types of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are employed as deep learning classifiers for classification. The best average accuracy of the proposed PD severity stage detection algorithm was 96.52% using ResNet-50 with vGRF data from the PhysioNet database.

    本研究基於垂直地面反作用力(vertical ground reaction force, vGRF)訊號,開發了一種使用深度學習的新型檢測和嚴重程度分類演算法,可應用於帕金森氏症(Parkinson’s disease, PD),這是由於 PD 患者的步態異常,vGRF 訊號產生不規則作用力分佈。檢測演算法包括預處理(分成 10、15 和 30 秒的連續時間窗格)、特徵轉換(使用連續小波變換)、和採用多種的卷積神經網路架構作為深度學習分類器進行分類。最後使用 ResNet-50 和來自 PhysioNet 的 vGRF數據庫驗證,所提出的 PD 嚴重程度階段檢測算法的最佳平均準確率為 96.52%。

  • 32. Doxycycline Ameliorates the Severity of Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy in Mice.

    Chen, S.-H., Lin, Y.-J., Wang, L.-C., Tsai, H.-Y., Yang, C.-H., Teng, Y.-T., & Hsu, S.-M. (2021). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(21), 11670. Cited this article

    After successful surgeries for patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, the most common cause of retinal redetachment is proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which causes severe vision impairment and even blindness worldwide. Until now, the major treatment for PVR is surgical removal of the epiretinal membrane, while effective treatment to prevent PVR is still unavailable. Therefore, we investigated the potential of doxycycline, an antibiotic in the tetracycline class, to treat PVR using a mouse model. We used the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19, for in vitro and in vivo studies to test doxycycline for PVR treatment. We found that doxycycline suppressed the migration, proliferation, and contraction of ARPE-19 cells with reduced p38 MAPK activation and total MMP activity. Intravitreal doxycycline and topical tetracycline treatment significantly ameliorated the PVR severity induced by ARPE-19 cells in mice. PVR increased the expression of MMP-9 and IL-4 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and modestly decreased IL-10. These effects were reversed by doxycycline and tetracycline treatment in the mouse retina. These results suggest that doxycycline will be a potential treatment for PVR in the future.


  • 33. Long-Term Effectiveness of a Decision Support App (Pink Journey) for Women Considering Breast Reconstruction Surgery: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Fang, S.-Y., Lin, P.-J., & Kuo, Y.-L. (2021). JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, 9(12), e31092 Cited this article

    Most of the women are not well prepared to make decision for undergoing breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Recent studies revealed that women with treatment decision-making difficulties experience chronic psychological distress. Using decision aids that providing information and facilitate value clarification during the process of treatment decision making can improve decision-related outcomes. An application (app) named “Pink Journey” was designed to help women make breast reconstruction decision after mastectomy.This randomized controlled trial included women who were over 20 years of age and were newly diagnosed with breast cancer and candidates for mastectomy. After intervention, decision conflict, decision regret, anxiety, depression, and body image scales were measured at1 week after the intervention and 1 month, 8 months, and 12 months after surgery. Results revealed that “Pink Journey” decision aid that combines surgery information and values clarification can help women reduce their body image distress after 1 year follow-up and did not increase anxiety and depression.


  • 34. Power Sharing and Media Freedom in Dictatorships.

    Sheen, G. C.-H., Tung, H. H., & Wu, W.-C. (2021). Political Communication, 1-20. Cited this article

    In this article, we attempt to provide an explanation to why there are different levels of media freedom in autocracies. We argue that this variation can be partially explained by the power dynamics within their ruling coalitions, among other reasons suggested in the previous literature. We argue that dictators need to allow for a higher level of media freedom when sharing more power with other elites. Specifically, dictators create transparency through media freedom to induce trust and cooperation among elites within the regime. We confirm the hypothesis by analyzing data from 98 dictatorships from 1960 to 2010. Our finding is robust to different model specifications. This article contributes to the literature by showing that authoritarian media freedom is determined by not only dictators’ need for local information as suggested in the extant literature, but also the power-sharing structure within their ruling coalitions.

    在這篇文章中,我們為在不同威權國家中,為什麼存在不同程度的媒體自由提出一個解釋。我們的理論主張,如果菁英間的權力分享程度越低,媒體自由程度會越小,若菁英間權力分享程度越高,則媒體自由程度會越大。這是因為媒體自由可以增加資訊透明度,使得菁英間的權力分享得以維持,而若獨裁者不需要與其他精英分享權力時,便沒有開放資訊透明的需求。我們分析涵蓋 1960到2010年間、98 個威權國家的資料,驗証了這個理論。

  • 35. The significance of SMARCB1 in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

    Wang, Y.-W., Song, H.-L., Chiang, C.-Y., Song, H.-F., Chang, H.-Y., Chu, C.-A., Tuan, Y.-L., Tsai, K.-H., Ou, Y.-C., Chow, N.-H., & Tsai, Y.-S. (2021). Translational Oncology, 14(10), 101175. Cited this article

    Malignant neoplasms with rhabdoid features are usually associated with a poor prognosis. Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid features (RCC-RF) is an aggressive histologic variant in the adults and is usually unresponsive to standard chemotherapy. Expression of SMARCB1/INI1 was assayed in primary RCC-RF (n = 5). Stable INI1 with/without prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) knockdown (KD) cell lines were created in the ACHN RCC cell line and analyzed for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-related signaling pathways. The potential importance of co-targeting EP1 for RCC-RF was examined using a tumorigenicity assay. Expression of INI1 was markedly reduced at both transcriptional and translational levels in RCC-RF. Loss of INI1 protein expression was confirmed in the nuclei of rhabdoid cells (n = 8). The growth rate of ACHN cells was significantly (P < 0.05) increased when INI1 was knocked down. Increase of migration (2.37 times) and invasion (2.5 times) in vitro was also demonstrated in INI1 KD cells. The ACHN INI1 KD cells were resistant to Sorafenib, while become more sensitive to Everolimus treatment in vitro compared with vector control. EGF treatment activated the phospho-EGFR expression, PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways in stable INI1 KD cells in vitro. PGE2 treatment also activated the AKT and ERK pathways in vitro, suggestive of a signaling crosstalk between EP1 and EGFR in INI1-related RCC. Knocking down of EP1 significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited the proliferation and migration of ACHN INI1 KD cells in vitro and suppressed the tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice (P < 0.001). Inactivation of INI1 may involve in the pathogenesis of RCC-RF. Co-targeting PGE2/EP1 pathway with Everolimus could be considered in the management of patients with INI1-related RCC.

    具有橫紋肌樣特徵的惡性腫瘤通常預後不良。具有橫紋肌樣特徵的腎細胞癌 (RCC-RF) 是成人的侵襲性組織學變異,通常對標準化療無反應。在初級腎細胞癌中檢測到 SMARCB1/INI1基因的表現◦ 在持續表現INI1基因的腎細胞癌模式中,比較把前列腺素 E2 受體 1 (EP1) 剔除後,偵測表皮生長因子受體 (EGFR)相關訊號傳遞是否受到影響◦ 使用致瘤性實驗分析檢測共同治療因子EP1 對 RCC-RF 的潛在重要性。在 腎細胞癌模式 中,INI1 在RNA及蛋白質表現上均顯著降低。在橫紋肌細胞(n = 8)的細胞核中也證實了 INI1 蛋白的喪失。為了確認類橫紋肌上皮腎細胞癌中發病機制之重要性,我們利用 ACHN 細胞株來建立 INI1 穩定下降的細胞株。在 INI1 表現之後,伴隨的類橫紋肌特徵、增加細胞增生及細胞爬行速度顯著增加。然而在細胞存活率實驗當中發現在外加 VEGFR 的抑制劑(蕾莎瓦(Sorafenib)後發現腫瘤細胞有顯著的抗藥性,而 mTOR 抑制劑-癌伏妥(Everolimus)對於 ACHN INI1 表現量穩定下降的細胞株則具有顯著專一性抑制的效果,也因此確立了發展多標靶抗癌藥物治療策略的潛力。在利用 microarray 技術分析後所得到的 1024 上升和 908 下降的基因群中,我們挑選前列腺素 E 受體家族做為研究目標,因為其可接收 PGE2 的訊號,而且參與 VEGF-C 所產生的癌化,以及和EGFR 下游的傳導路徑有交互作用。利用 RT-PCR 及 Western blot 分析後,發現在 INI1表現量下降以後,外加生長因子EGF活化磷酸化EGFR, PI3K-AKT, MAPK等訊息傳遞蛋白的表現◦再深入探討 PGE2/COX 的訊息傳遞路徑之後,發現外加PGE2後, 能活化AKT及ERK等訊息傳遞蛋白表現,此結果證實了在 INI1表現量相關的腎細胞癌細胞株中EP1 及EGFR有互相影響的訊息傳遞作用◦當把EP1基因剔除後發現顯著(P < 0.001)抑制了ACHN INI1 KD細胞的增殖和遷移,並抑制了 NOD/SCID 小鼠的腫瘤生長(P < 0.001)。 INI1 的失活可能參與 橫紋肌樣特徵的腎細胞癌 之發病機制。未來可進一步考慮將 PGE2/EP1 通路與依維莫司(Everolimus)藥物聯合用於 INI1 相關 的腎細胞癌 患者其治療方針上。

  • 36. Spatially varying effects of measured confounding variables on disease risk.

    Wu, C.-C., Chu, Y.-H., Shete, S., & Chen, C.-H. (2021). International Journal of Health Geographics, 20(1), 45. Cited this article

    The presence of considerable spatial variability in incidence intensity suggests that risk factors are unevenly distributed in space and influence the geographical disease incidence distribution and pattern. As most human common diseases are complex traits and as more factors associated with increased risk are discovered, spatial models are needed that investigate geographical variability in the association between disease incidence and confounding variables and evaluate spatially varying effects on disease risk related to known risk factors. We proposed a spatial model that incorporates information on known risk factors, previously detected geographical disease clusters of peak incidence and paucity of incidence, and their interactions as covariates into the framework of interaction regression models with linear effects. The spatial scan statistic and the generalized map-based pattern recognition procedure that we recently developed were both considered for geographical disease cluster detection. The application to the sudden infant death syndrome incidence data with confounding variables of race and gender demonstrates the ability of our proposed model to estimate spatially varying associations between disease incidence and confounding variables and distinguish spatially related risk factors from spatially constant ones.

    空間中疾病發生率高低的變異性相當大,此現象可能因危險因子在空間中分布不均所導致,並且會影響地理上疾病發生率的分布與圖像。由於大部分人類常見的疾病是複雜性疾病,以及隨著時間的推移,越來越多與風險相關的因素被發現,因此以空間模型來調查疾病發生率與干擾因子之間在地理變異性的關聯是有需要的,並且評估與疾病風險相關的已知危險因子在空間變化上的影響。我們提出一個空間模型將已知危險因子的資訊、預先檢測出空間疾病群聚中的高發生率與低發生率地區,以及共變量之間的交互作用整合到線性交互回歸模型的框架中。而spatial scan statistic與我們最近提出的generalized map-based pattern recognition procedure都被用在地理疾病群聚檢測上。應用嬰兒猝死症發生率數據以及該疾病的干擾因子例如種族與性別,來證明所提出的模型對於估計疾病發生率與干擾因子之間在空間變化上的關聯是有效的,並從顯著危險因子中再辨別出與空間相關或沒有空間相關的危險因子。

  • 37. Multi-component cognitive intervention for older adults with mixed cognitive levels: implementation and preliminary effectiveness in real-world settings.

    Mao, H.-F., Tsai, A. Y.-J., Chang, L.-H., & Tsai, I. L. (2021). BMC Geriatrics, 21(1), 543. Cited this article

    Purpose: This study describes the implementation and preliminary effectiveness of a Multi-component Cognitive Intervention using Simulated Everyday Tasks (MCI-SET) for older adults with different cognitive levels in real-world settings.Methods: Single group, repeated measures design. People aged ≥ 65 and frail, dependent on ≥ 1 instrumental daily activity, or with confirmed dementia were recruited. Outcomes included general cognition, memory, attention, executive function, and general function.Results: Multiple methods were used to ensure implementation fidelity. 130 participants from 8 community centers, with 85% retention rate, and 96% attendance rate. General cognition, attention, and general function was improved post-intervention. After 3 months, improvement in general cognition maintained; delayed effects on attention, short-term memory, and executive function were observed. Intervention settings, pre-intervention cognitive levels or general function were not associated with the outcomes. Conclusions: MCI-SET is feasible and effective to improve cognitive skills and general functions of older adults with heterogeneous cognitive levels.

    本研究於8社區據點實行複合式認知介入。130位 ≥ 65歲且衰弱、≥ 1工具性日常活動需協助、或確診失智。介入後整體認知、注意力和整體功能顯著進步,3個月後整體認知成效維持,注意力、短期記憶和執行功能顯著進步。場域、介入前認知或整體功能程度對成效沒有影響。以多種方法維持保真度;保留率85%、出席率96%,可行性佳。

  • 38. Examining the Relationship between Gender Contentedness and Sex-Related Experiences among Taiwanese Youth.

    Liu, C.-Y., Kuo, J.-H., Lee, T.-H., Strong, C., Tsai, M.-C., & Lee, C.-T. (2021). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(20), 10635. Cited this article

    Little is known about how gender contentedness is related to sex-related experiences among Taiwanese adolescents. Secondary analysis of data (n = 2624, Mage = 13.3 ± 0.47 years and 51% males) on a longitudinal youth cohort was used to track the evolving development of sex-related experiences such as exposure to sexually explicit media, romantic experiences, and sexual behaviors. Hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied to study the effects of gender contentedness on sex-related outcome variables. The results showed that nearly 10% of the subjects were not contented with their gender. As compared to peers, gender-discontented adolescents had a higher likelihood of exposures to sexually explicit media (odds ratio [OR]. = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]. = 1.18-2.46) and risky sex behaviors (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03-4.81). These results shed light on the impact of self-perceived gender contentedness on sex-related experiences in Taiwanese adolescents. Our findings are helpful for the development of practical guidance on sexual health issues, particularly for those who are discontented with their gender.

    Keywords: adolescent; gender contentedness; risky sex behavior; sexual health; sexually explicit media.


    在台灣青少年群體中,關於性別滿意與性相關經歷兩面向之關係所知之甚少,透過一縱向青少年世代研究之二手分析(總人數 = 2624人,Mage = 13.3 ± 0.47 years ,其中51% 男性),來追蹤與性相關經歷的演變發展,例如:接觸情色媒體、談戀愛與性行為,接著使用分層多項邏輯回歸分析來研究性別滿意對性別相關結果變量的影響,而結果顯示有近10%的受試者對自己的性別不滿意,對自己性別不滿意的青少年與同齡人相比,其接觸色情媒體(勝算比 [OR]. = 1.70, 95% 信賴區間 [CI]. = 1.18-2.46)和從事危險性行為(勝算比 [OR].= 2.22 , 95% 信賴區間[CI].= 1.03-4.81)的可能性都更高。


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