獲得圖書館OA補助文章之介紹 (服務辦法)
  • 1. Z-Complementary Code Sets With Flexible Lengths From Generalized Boolean Functions.

    Wu, S. W., Şahin, A., Huang, Z. M., & Chen, C. Y. (2021). IEEE Access, 9, 4642-4652. Cite this article

    In the literature, most Z-complementary code set (ZCCS) constructions based on generalized Boolean functions lead to sequences of power-of-two length. In this study, we show that our proposed direct constructions result in ZCCSs of both power-of-two length and non-power-of-two length. Since the monomials of degrees more than 2 are employed in the proposed constructions, more ZCCSs can be obtained. The constructed ZCCSs admit the theoretical upper bound on the size for a ZCCS when the sequence length is a power of two. Also, the corresponding peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) is theoretically upper-bounded when a sequence in the set is used in OFDM. The proposed constructions extend the applications of ZCCSs in practical communication systems, e.g., multicarrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) system, by offering flexible sequence lengths, various set sizes, and bounded PAPR.


  • 2. Anti-IL-20 Antibody Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Impaired Myocardial Function through Modulation of Oxidative Injuries, Inflammation and Cardiac Remodeling.

    Tsai, K.-L., Chou, W.-C., Cheng, H.-C., Huang, Y.-T., Chang, M.-S., & Chan, S.-H. (2021). Antioxidants, 10(2), 275. Cite this article

    We confirmed that IL-20 antibody injection at the moment of reperfusion reduces I/R-caused oxidative injuries, apoptosis, inflammation, as well as the elevation in markers of cardiac fibrosis and remodeling. We also proved that IL-20 antibody injection attenuates cardiac functional impairment, including the repressed EF and FS, the increased left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, and plasma markers of cardiac injury and heart failure. This study elucidates that IL-20 antibody might be favorable in lessening reperfusion injury in the treatment of AMI.


  • 3. The Spatial-Temporal Distribution of GOCI-Derived Suspended Sediment in Taiwan Coastal Water Induced by Typhoon Soudelor.

    Chau, P. M., Wang, C.-K., & Huang, A.-T. (2021). Remote Sensing, 13(2), 194. Cite this article

    We use high temporal resolution Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to monitor the spatial–temporal distribution of suspended sediment (SS) along the coastal waters of northern Taiwan which was affected by Typhoon Soudelor from 8 to 10 August 2015. The results show that SS concentration increased during 11–14 August and then decreased during 19–22 August. The mouths of the Dajia River and Tamsui River were hotspots of SS, ranging from 9 to 15 g/m3, during the two post-typhoon periods. It is also shown that maximum SS occurred in the west and east coastal water during 11–14 August and 19–22 August, respectively. Furthermore, an exponential decay model was used to compute the time when 90% of typhoon-induced SS was dissipated after Typhoon Soudelor. It was found that the mouths of the Tamsui River and Heping River had the longest time, with a range of 360–480 h.

    本文以高時間解析度GOCI衛星影像,觀測北台灣沿岸海水懸浮泥沙濃度(SS)受2015年8月蘇迪樂颱風影響之時空分佈。在颱風過後,SS分別於8月11–14日觀測期間上升,8月19–22日觀測期間下降,且大甲溪與淡水河之河口為高SS之熱區,達9–15 g/m3。以指數衰減模型計算減少90%颱風誘發的SS所需時間,發現淡水河與和平溪河口需要360–480小時。

  • 4. An aptamer interacting with heat shock protein 70 shows therapeutic effects and prognostic ability in serous ovarian cancer.

    Lin, C.-N., Tsai, Y.-C., Hsu, C.-C., Liang, Y.-L., Wu, Y.-Y., Kang, C.-Y., Lin, C.-H., Hsu, P.-H., Lee, G.-B., & Hsu, K.-F. (2021). Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 23, 757-768. Cite this article

    In this study, we aim to clarify the novel aptamer, Tx-01, clinical role and possible molecular mechanisms of Tx-01 in Ovarian cancer. Immunostaining and statistical analysis were performed to detect the interaction of Tx-01 and heat shock protein 70/Notch1 intracellular domain in OvCa. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential mechanisms of Tx-01. Tx-01 reduced serous OvCa OVCAR3 cell migration and invasion and inhibited HSP70 nuclear translocation by interrupting the intracellular HSP70/NICD interaction. Furthermore, Tx-01 suppressed serous-type OVCAR3 cell tumor growth in vivo. Tx-01 acts as a prognostic factor through its interaction with membrane-bound HSP70 on ascetic circulating tumor cells and is reported to be involved in natural killer (NK) cell recognition and activation. Our data demonstrated that Tx-01 interacted with HSP70 and showed therapeutic and prognostic effects in serous OvCa. Tx-01 might be a potential inhibitor for use in serous OvCa treatment.

    在這個研究中,我們發現新穎的適體TX-01跟HSP70在卵巢癌中有做結合。TX-01可以抑制卵巢癌OVCAR3細胞的移動及入侵, 同時抑制HSP70細胞核的移動 , 在小鼠上抑制OVCAR3的腫瘤生長。透過卵巢癌病人的腹水當中HSP70的結合, 可以作為治療預後的指標。因此我們認為TX-01的適體透過HSP70的結合可以在漿液性卵巢癌當中,具有作為治療以及預後預測的角色。

  • 5. Diversified Phenomena in Metal- and Transition-Metal-Adsorbed Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Lin, S.-Y., Tran, N. T. T., & Lin, M.-F. (2021). Nanomaterials, 11(3), 630. Cite this article

    In this study, the significant similarities and differences among Bi-/Al-/Ti-/Fe-/Co-/Ni-adsorbed graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are thoroughly investigated by using the first-principles calculations. The main characterizations include the adsorption sites, bond lengths, stability, band structures, charge densities, spin- and orbital-projected density of states, and magnetic configurations. Furthermore, there exists a transformation from finite gap semiconducting to metallic behaviors, accompanied by the nonmagnetism, antiferromagnetism, or ferromagnetism. The proposed theoretical framework could be generalized to explore other emergent 1D and 2D materials.

    使用第一原理計算,研究其Bi // Al- / Ti- / Fe- / Co- / Ni吸附的石墨烯奈米帶(GNR)之間的顯著差異。主要特徵為吸附位、鍵長、穩定性、能帶結構、電荷密度、自旋及軌道投影態密度與磁性構型。此外,伴隨著非磁性,反鐵磁性或鐵磁性,存在有限間隙半導體到金屬行為之轉變。此結果概括了理論性框架,及探索研究其它新興之1D與2D材料。

  • 6. Nanomedicine-Based Strategies Assisting Photodynamic Therapy for Hypoxic Tumors: State-of-the-Art Approaches and Emerging Trends.

    Shih, C.-Y., Wang, P.-T., Su, W.-C., Teng, H., & Huang, W.-L. (2021).Biomedicines, 9(2), 137. Cite this article

    Since the first clinical cancer treatment in 1978, photodynamic therapy (PDT) technologies have been largely improved and approved for clinical usage in various cancers. Due to the oxygen-dependent nature, the application of PDT is still limited by hypoxia in tumor tissues. Thus, the development of effective strategies for manipulating hypoxia and improving the effectiveness of PDT is one of the most important area in PDT field. Recently, emerging nanotechnology has benefitted progress in many areas, including PDT. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of nanomedicine-based approaches for assisting PDT for treating hypoxic tumors, mainly based on oxygen replenishing and oxygen dependency diminishing strategies. We will emphasize emerging trends about the use of nanoscale metal–organic framework materials and the combination of PDT with immunotherapy. We further discuss future perspectives and challenges associated with these trends in both the aspects of mechanism and clinical translation.


  • 7. Phage Digestion of a Bacterial Capsule Imparts Resistance to Two Antibiotic Agents.

    Luo, C.-H., Hsu, Y.-H., Wu, W.-J., Chang, K.-C., & Yeh, C.-S. (2021).Microorganisms, 9(4), 794. Cite this article

    Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect bacteria, which have developed extraordinary proteins for recognizing and degrading their host. Inspired by the remarkable development of viral proteins, phage-derived proteins have been used for clinical treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria infection. For example, the polysaccharide depolymerase or endolysins were used to attenuate bacterial cell walls or to destroy the bacterial membrane. More recent efforts have addressed bacterial selection to treat drug-stress or phage infection. We, then, propose a combination strategy of co-treating MDR Acinetobacter baumannii with phage endolysin derived peptide and polysaccharide depolymerase (the tail fiber molecules). In the study, we surprisingly observed a temporary increase in resistance to colistin, used as the last-resort antibiotic for MDR Gram negative bacterial infection. Evaluation of the phage attacking behavior suggests the temporary increased resistance may be associated with an increased risk of drug-resistance during phage-antibiotic synergy in clinical MDR A. baumannii treatment.


  • 8. Computer-Assisted System in Stress Radiography for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury with Correspondent Evaluation of Relevant Diagnostic Factors.

    Wang, C.-K., Lin, L.-C., Sun, Y.-N., Lai, C.-S., Chen, C.-H., & Kao, C.-Y. (2021).Diagnostics, 11(3), 419. Cite this article

    Retrospective research for 177 patients (129 with completely torn ACLs confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging) at our institution was performed. The anterior tibial translations with four different methods were measured by a computer-assisted system. Mean anterior tibial translations were significantly increased in the patients with a completely torn ACL, with diagnostic accuracies ranging from 66.7% to 75.1%. The diagnostic accuracy of method four was negatively associated with the time interval between stress radiography and MRI as well as force-joint distance on stress view, and not significantly associated with age, gender, flexion angle, intercondylar distance, and force-joint angle.


  • 9. Anti-Inflammatory Principles from the Needles of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata and In Silico Studies of Their Potential Anti-Aging Effects.

    Kuo, P.-C., Li, Y.-C., Kusuma, A. M., Tzen, J. T. C., Hwang, T.-L., Ye, G.-H., Yang, M.-L., & Wang, S.-Y. (2021).Antioxidants, 10(4), 598. Cite this article

    Pinus needle tea, which is very popular in Eastern countries, is claimed to have significant anti-aging effects. In this study, five undescribed compounds as well as seventy-two known compounds were characterized from the methanol extracts of P. taiwanensis needles. Most of the isolates were examined for their anti-inflammatory bioactivity, and six compounds exhibited significant inhibitions on superoxide anion generation and elastase release. These ingredients were subjected to docking computing to evaluate their binding affinity on the ghrelin receptor to explore the potentials of anti-aging effect. Three tested compounds formed a stable complex with the ghrelin receptor via hydrogen bonds and different types of interactions, and it suggested these flavonoids to be responsible for the potential anti-aging effects of pine needle tea.


  • 10. Electrosynthesized Ni-P nanospheres with high activity and selectivity towards photoelectrochemical plastics reforming.

    Lin, C.-Y., Huang, S.-C., Lin, Y.-G., Hsu, L.-C., & Yi, C.-T. (2021). Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 296, 120351. Cite this article

    Photoelectrochemical reforming of plastic waste offers an environmentally-benign and sustainable route for hydrogen generation. Nonetheless, little attention was paid to develop electrocatalysts that can efficiently and selectively catalyze oxidative transformation of valueless plastic wastes into valued chemicals. Herein, we report on facile electrosynthesis of nickel-phosphorus nanospheres (nanoNi-P), and their versatility in catalyzing hydrogen generation, water oxidation, and reforming of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Notably, composite of nanoNi-P with carbon nanotubes (CNT/nanoNi-P) requires −180 mV overpotential to drive hydrogen generation at -100 mA cm−2. Besides, CV-activated nanoNi-P (nanoNi-P(CV)) was shown to be capable of reforming PET into formate with high selectivity (Faradic efficiency= ∼100 %). Efficient and selective generation of hydrogen and formate from PET reforming is realized utilizing an Earth-abundant photoelectrochemical platform based on nanoNi-P(CV)-modified TiO2 nanorods photoanode and CNT/nanoNi-P cathode. This work paves a path for developing artificial leaf for simultaneous environmental mitigation and photosynthesis of renewable fuels and valued chemicals.


  • 11. Association of Primary Treatment Modality for Advanced-Stage Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Survival Outcomes.

    Tsai, M.-H., Cheng, Y.-J., Pao, T.-H., Hsueh, W.-T., Chen, H. H. W., & Wu, Y.-H. (2021). JAMA Network Open, 4(6), e2112067-e2112067. Cite this article

    This retrospective comparative effectiveness analysis used data from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Included patients were diagnosed with clinical stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma from 2007 to 2015 and were identified from the registry. Among 1180 patients, 694 patients (58.8%) were in the definitive chemoradiotherapy group and 486 patients (41.2%) were in the upfront surgical treatment group. The mean age was 54.59 years. Primary treatment with an upfront surgical procedure was associated with a decreased risk of death during the study period (HR: 0.81; P = .02). However, when adjusted for age, subsite, histological grade, and T and N classification, upfront surgical treatment was no longer associated with an increased risk of death during the study period (HR: 0.96; P = .70). Progressionfree survival was worse in the group receiving upfront surgical treatment than in the group receiving chemoradiotherapy (HR, 1.64; P = .02), and this difference persisted after adjusting for other factors associated with prognosis(HR, 1.72; p = .01). This study found that definitive chemoradiotherapy was associated with effectiveness that was comparable with that of upfront surgical treatment when adjusted for baseline factors associated with prognosis. These findings suggest that definitive chemoradiotherapy should be considered to avoid accumulating toxic effects associated with surgical treatment and chemoradiotherapy.

    本研究為回溯性之比較效益研究。我們採用台灣癌症登記資料庫的數據, 2007年至2015年第III或IV期口咽鱗狀細胞癌, 1180例患者中,有694例(58.8%)接受了根治性放射治療併化學治療,486例(41.2%)接受手術治療。中位(四分間距)追蹤時間為3.62(1.63-5.47)年,大多數患者為男性(1052 [89.1%])、原發於扁桃線(712例[60.3%]),組織呈中度分化(604例[51.2%]),臨床期別為N2(858例[72.7%])與IVA疾病(938患者[79.5%])。於研究期間中,接受手術治療與較低死亡風險相關(HR 0.81;p = .02)。但經年齡、原發部位、分化程度、及T和N分期調整後,則不再與死亡風險相關(HR,0.96;P = .70)。接受手術治療的無進展生存期較差(HR,1.64;P = .02),且調整了與已知預後因子(即年齡、原發部位、分化程度、及T和N分期)後,仍有顯著差異(HR,1.72;P = 0.01)。結論與相關性:我們的分析顯示,在校正已知預後因子後,根治性放射治療併化學治療與手術治療在局部晚期口咽癌的效果相當。我們認為應優先考慮根治性放射治療併化學治療,以避免手術與根治性放射治療併化學治療的三重毒性。

  • 12. Development of spatially varying groundwater-drawdown functions for land subsidence estimation.

    Chu, H.-J., Ali, M. Z., Tatas, & Burbey, T. J. (2021). Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 35, 100808. Cite this article

    Land subsidence caused by groundwater overexploitation is a critical global problem. The spatial distribution of land subsidence is crucial for effective environmental management and land planning in subsidence prone areas. Because of the nonlinear relationship between subsidence and drawdown due to groundwater exploitation in heterogeneous aquifers, a spatial regression (SR) model is developed to effectively estimate nonlinear and spatially varying land subsidence. Considering various data inputs in the Choshui River alluvial fan, the SR model offers a robust method for accurately estimating the spatial patterns of subsidence using only drawdown as input data.


  • 13. Neurodevelopment regulators miR-137 and miR-34 family as biomarkers for early and adult onset schizophrenia.

    Chen, B.-Y., Lin, J.-J., Lu, M.-K., Tan, H.-P., Jang, F.-L., & Lin, S.-H. (2021). npj Schizophrenia, 7(1), 35. Cite this article

    Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) may have stronger familial aggregation and a more severe outcome than adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS). MicroRNA (miRNA) takes on dual roles as a genetic and epigenetic modulator, which mediate the influence of genetic risk. Neurological soft signs (NSS) are neurological abnormalities that may be intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We aimed to identify a set of aberrant neurodevelopmental-related miRNAs that could serve as potential biomarkers for EOS or schizophrenia with NSS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed miR-137 dysregulation was correlated with almost all NSS subscales and, when EOS patients with NSS, miR-137 expression discriminated these patients from healthy controls to a greater extent (AUC = 0.957). MiR-34b had the highest ability to discriminate between EOS and AOS (AUC = 0.810), which may indicate different etiological pathways to disease onset. These findings support the potential for neurodevelopmental-related miRNAs to be used as indicators of vulnerability to EOS.
    Keywords: schizophrenia, epigenetic, microRNA, neurological soft signs, endophenotype, neurodevelopment.

    早發性思覺失調症患者相較於成人才發病的患者可能有較高的家族聚集性與較嚴重的症狀。而微型核醣核酸具備遺傳與表觀遺傳的雙重角色,軟性神經學症狀可能為思覺失調症的內在表現型。microRNA-137可鑑別早發性思覺失調症伴隨軟性神經學症狀患者與健康者(AUC = 0.957)。而microRNA-34b則能於早發性與成人型思覺失調症患者之間有良好的鑑別能力(AUC = 0.810)。本研究成功利用一組與神經發展相關的微型核糖核酸(microRNA-137與microRNA-34家族)作為鑑別早發型思覺失調症患者的潛在生物標記。

  • 14. Etoposide Triggers Cellular Senescence by Inducing Multiple Centrosomes and Primary Cilia in Adrenocortical Tumor Cells.

    Teng, Y.-N., Chang, H.-C., Chao, Y.-Y., Cheng, H.-L., Lien, W.-C., & Wang, C.-Y. (2021). Cells, 10(6), 1466. Cite this article

    Etoposide (ETO) has been used in treating adrenocortical tumor (ACT) cells. In this study, we showed that ETO treatment at 10 μM inhibited ACT cell growth by inducing cellular senescence rather than apoptosis. Several markers of cellular senescence, including activated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, elevated levels of p53, and down-regulation of lamin B1, were observed. We further found that ETO induced multiple centrosomes. The inhibition of multiple centrosomes accomplished by treating cells with either roscovitine or centrinone. DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling was activated by ETO treatment; inhibition of this signaling cascade alleviated multiple ETO-induced centrosomes and primary cilia followed by reducing cellular senescence. Autophagy was also triggered by ETO treatment. The inactivation of DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling reduced ETO-triggered autophagy; however, the inhibition of autophagy did not affect DNA-PK-Chk2 activation. Thus, ETO activated the DNA-PK-Chk2 cascade to facilitate autophagy. The activated autophagy further induced multiple centrosomes and primary cilia followed by triggering senescence.

    本研究發現當以濃度10 µM的etoposide (ETO)處理細胞時,會誘發cellular senescence,伴隨SA-β-GAL酵素活性會增加、p53上升和lamin B1下降。ETO會導致multiple centrosomes。ETO也會活化DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling,抑制此signaling會減少multiple centrosomes及primary cilia進而減少senescence,autophagy也受到相同的訊息路徑的調控,當抑制DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling會減少ETO所誘發的autophagy,而當抑制autophagy不會影響DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling的活化。因此ETO活化DNA-PK-Chk2 signaling以促進autophagy,進而誘導multiple centrosomes及primary cilia觸發senescence。

  • 15. Trajectory of Food Insecurity and Its Association with Longitudinal Mental Health and Sleep Outcomes in Adolescents from Economically Disadvantaged Families.

    Lee, T.-H., Kuo, J.-H., Liu, C.-Y., Yu, Y.-F., Strong, C., Lin, C.-Y., Lee, C.-T., & Tsai, M.-C. (2021). Nutrients, 13(5), 1696. Cite this article

    There is a paucity of research examining how the change of food insecurity (FI) over time is related to mental health and sleep outcomes in Taiwanese adolescents. The data come from the Taiwan Database of Children and Youth in Poverty, which is a national longitudinal project measuring FI in five survey waves (2009-2017). We employed group-based trajectory modeling to classify 1921 participants aged 12-18 years into four FI trajectory groups: persistently low FI (24.8%), persistently moderate FI (64.7%), declining from high to low FI (4.1%), and food-secure groups (6.4%). Furthermore, a generalized estimating equation analysis was conducted the persistently moderate FI group was more likely to have mental (β = 0.30, [95% confidence interval 0.21-0.38]) and sleep problems (β = 0.39, [0.29-0.48]), as compared to food-secure adolescents. Our study describes the FI profile of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families. Healthcare providers can aid adolescents and provide guidance when appropriate.


    很少有研究調查糧食匱虞(FI)隨時間的變化如何與台灣青少年的心理健康和睡眠結果相關。數據來自台灣貧窮兒童與青少年數據庫,這是一個全國性縱貫計畫,在五個調查波(2009-2017)中測量FI。我們採用群組化軌跡模型將 1921名 12至18 歲的參與者分為四個 FI 軌跡組別,分別是持續低度FI (24.8%)、持續中度FI (64.7%)、從高到低FI (4.1%) 和糧食安全組(6.4%)。接續進行廣義估計方程分析,發現對比糧食安全的青少年,持續中等 FI 組更可能有心理(β = 0.30,[95% 信賴區間 0.21-0.38])和睡眠問題(β = 0.39,[0.29-0.48])。我們的研究描述了來自經濟弱勢家庭的青少年的 FI 概況。醫療照顧提供者可以幫助青少年並在適當時提供指導。

  • 16. Sitting Posture during Prolonged Computer Typing with and without a Wearable Biofeedback Sensor.

    Kuo, Y.-L., Huang, K.-Y., Kao, C.-Y., & Tsai, Y.-J. (2021). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10), 5430. Cite this article

    Prolonged sitting combined with an awkward posture might contribute to the increased risks of developing spinal pain. Maintaining an upright sitting posture is thus often suggested. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a wearable biofeedback sensor on maintaining an upright sitting posture. Twenty-one healthy young adults were recruited and performed a 1-h computer typing task twice, with and without using the active biofeedback device. The sagittal spinal posture during computer typing was measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Using the wearable bio-feedback sensor significantly decreased the neck flexion, thoracic kyphotic, and pelvic plane angles compared with not using the sensor. Computer users and sedentary workers may benefit from using wearable biofeedback sensors to actively maintain an upright sitting posture during prolonged deskwork.


  • 17. Applying an Adaptive Signal Identification Method to Improve Vessel Echo Detection and Tracking for SeaSonde HF Radar.

    Chuang, L. Z.-H., Chen, Y.-R., & Chung, Y.-J. (2021). Remote Sensing, 13(13), 2453. Cite this article

    To enhance remote sensing for maritime safety and security. High-frequency (HF) radar systems are a type of mainstream technology widely used in international marine remote sensing. However, effectively recognizing targets in spectra with intrinsic strong disturbance echoes and random environmental noise is still challenging. To avoid the above problem, this paper proposes an adaptive signal identification method to detect target signals based on a rapid and flexible threshold. By integrating a watershed segmentation algorithm, the subsequent direction result can be used to automatically compute the direction of arrival of the targets. To assist in the orientation of the object, forward intersections are integrated with the technique. Hence, the proposed technique can effectively recognize vessel echoes with automatic identification system (AIS) verification. Experiments have demonstrated the promising feasibility of the proposed method’s performance.
    Keywords: high-frequency (HF) radar; adaptive signal identification (ASI); vessel detection; direction finding; automatic identification system (AIS)

    關鍵字:高頻雷達; 調適性偵測技術; 船舶偵測; 方位辨識; 自動辨識系統

  • 18. Sex differences in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and effects of comorbid mental retardation and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Tang, C. H., Chi, M. H., Hsieh, Y. T., Lee, T. I., Tai, Y. C., Lien, Y.-J., Yang, Y. K., & Chen, P. S. (2021). Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. Cite this article

    The association between sex and diagnostic behavior of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the effects of comorbid mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), were explored. The incidence was higher in males than in females across ages. Comorbid MR or ADHD increased the incidence of ASD in both sexes; comorbid MR or ADHD also decreased the male to female hazard ratio of ASD, with no significant differences in the incidence density of ASD between sexes. ADHD delayed diagnosis in both sexes. The results indicating unique vulnerabilities to MR/ADHD or under-identification of high-functioning females with ASD subjects. Increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of ASD in those with comorbid ADHD is important due to a delayed diagnostic age in this group.


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